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Residents can call the Public Health Call Center for more information on monkeypox, including general information, testing, treatment, and vaccines: (833) 540-0473
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Since May 13, 2022, cases of monkeypox have been reported to World Health Organization (WHO) from 12 Member States that are not endemic for monkeypox virus, across three WHO regions. The WHO described this as a “multi-country monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries” on May 21, 2022.

On May 20, 2022, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a health advisory regarding a confirmed case of monkeypox virus infection in Massachusetts as well as multiple clusters of monkeypox virus infections in other countries that do not usually have monkeypox cases. Anyone can get monkeypox. Currently, most cases have been among persons self-identifying as gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM), but not exclusively. Anyone who has been in close contact with someone who has monkeypox is at risk.

Additionally, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) issued an updated advisory on May 27 and also issued an advisory on May 20 to health care providers to immediately notify their local health jurisdiction (LHJ) of any potential cases.

For California updates, click here to see CDPH’s monkeypox.

For the US updates, click here for the CDC’s US Monkeypox 2022: Situation Summary.

What is monkeypox and how does it spread?

Monkeypox is a contagious disease caused by the monkeypox virus. It was discovered in 1958 when two outbreaks of a pox-like disease occurred in colonies of monkeys kept for research. The first human case of monkeypox was recorded in 1970. It was rarely seen in the United States or many other countries until May 2022.

There are 2 types of monkeypox virus. The type that is currently in the US is less severe. The most common symptom is a rash, which may or may not be associated with flu-like symptoms Most people do not need hospital care and recover in 2-4 weeks. Vaccines and antiviral treatment are available for monkeypox.

Monkeypox is known to spread by close intimate and/or prolonged contact with someone with monkeypox including through:

  • Direct skin-to-skin contact with monkeypox rash, scabs, or sores during sex and other intimate contact, including kissing, massaging, and cuddling.
  • Contact with respiratory secretions. This can happen during prolonged, close, face-to-face contact or intimate physical contact, such as kissing, cuddling, and sex with a person with monkeypox.
  • Contact with objects and fabrics (such as unwashed clothing and bedding, sharing towels) that have been used by someone with monkeypox and haven’t been cleaned.

A person with monkeypox can spread it to others from the time symptoms start until the rash has fully healed and a new layer of skin has formed. This usually takes 2 to 4 weeks.

A pregnant person with monkeypox can spread the virus to their fetus through the placenta.

Monkeypox is much less contagious than COVID-19. It is NOT spread through casual conversations or by walking by someone with monkeypox.

Scientists are still researching more about how monkeypox is spread, including:

  • If the virus can be spread when someone has no symptoms,
  • How often it spreads through respiratory secretions, and
  • Any other types of interactions or behaviors that may put people at increased risk.

What does monkeypox look like and what are the symptoms?

Key symptom: Rash

Rash, bumps, or blisters

The rash may:

  • Look like bumps, pimples, blisters, sores, or scabs
  • Be anywhere on the body including on the genitals, anus, mouth, hands, and face.
  • Be in just one area or may spread over the body.
  • Be itchy, or painful (especially if the rash is inside the mouth or anus).

Other symptoms: Flu-like symptoms

Fever / chills

Exhaustion, muscle aches, and headache

Swollen lymph nodes

  • Flu-like symptoms can appear 1-4 days before the rash starts or after the rash starts.
  • Not everyone will get these symptoms.

Symptoms usually start 5-21 days after exposure
Most people recover in 2-4 weeks

Early vesticle, 3mm diameter, Individual Monkeypox Skin Lesions close-up
Small pustule, 2mm diameter, Individual Monkeypox Skin Lesions close-up
Umbilicated pustule, 3-4mm diameter, Individual Monkeypox Skin Lesions close-up
Ulcerated lesion, 5mm diameter, Individual Monkeypox Skin Lesions close-up
Crusting of mature lesions, Individual Monkeypox Skin Lesions close-up
Partially removed scab, Individual Monkeypox Skin Lesions close-up

All of the above images are from GOV.UK,

Monkeypox symptoms usually start within 3 weeks of exposure to the virus.

The most common symptom is a rash that may:

  • Look like bumps, pimples, blisters, or scabs and will go through several stages before healing. Generally, the rash starts as red, flat spots, and then becomes bumps. Those bumps can then become filled with fluid which turns to pus. The bumps then crust into a scab.
  • Be on or near the genitals (penis, testicles, labia, and vagina), anus (butthole), mouth, or other areas like the hands, feet, chest, and face.
  • Spread over the body or it may be limited to one area. There may be just a few bumps or blisters.
  • Be painful and/or itchy. Some people have severe pain, especially if the rash is inside their mouth or anus.

In addition to the rash, people may also develop flu-like symptoms. These can appear 1-4 days before the rash starts or after the rash starts. They include fever/chills, swollen lymph nodes, exhaustion, muscle aches, and headache.

Most people with monkeypox recover in 2-4 weeks.

How can monkeypox be prevented?

There are a number of ways to prevent the spread of monkeypox:

  • Get vaccinated if you are eligible.
  • Avoid very close and/or prolonged contact with someone with monkeypox symptoms, especially:
    • Oral, anal, and vaginal sex, or touching the genitals or anus
    • Hugging, cuddling, massaging, kissing
    • Skin-to-skin contact with the rash on their body
    • Sharing towels, clothing, bedding, blankets, or other objects (e.g., toothbrushes, cups, utensils, and sex toys) and materials that have not been cleaned.
    • Talking very closely face to face for a long time (approximately 3 hours or more).
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, especially before eating or touching your face and after you use the bathroom.
  • Wear appropriate protective equipment (mask, gloves, and gown) if you cannot avoid close contact with someone with monkeypox symptoms.

For more Monkeypox information

Please visit the Monkeypox Resources page at

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